The inter-correlations among survey instrument items play a role in calculating internal consistency reliability coefficients (Cronbach's alpha, split-half, KR-20), test-retest reliability (Spearman-Brown formula), and inter-rater reliability (Kappa, ICC). Correlation matrices also play a significant role in principal components analysis (eigenvalues, factor loadings).
Correlations are used to generate convergent, predictive, and concurrent validity evidence. Significant correlations with theoretically or conceptually similar constructs/survey instruments denotes evidence of validity. In social sciences, a validity coefficient (or correlation coefficient) of .3 is considered evidence of validity.
Pearson's r and Spearman's rho are the most prevalent correlation tests used to generate validity evidence. These correlations are used with survey instruments that generate ordinal or continuous outcomes.